PA 4- The time of architecture

  • Australopithecus- 5000000 years ag
    • first humanoids appeared in Africa
    • fire and shelters weren´t used
    • evolve into Homo Habilis
  • Homo Eructus- 1.600.000-200.0000 B.C.
    • learns how to make fire and invents «home» (including a fireplace)
    • Beginnings of architecture
      • made from a group of hunters
      • the architecture understood as the deliberate confirmation of a living environment
  • Homo Neanderthalesis 100.000-40.000 B.C.
    • symbolic terms- life after death
    • community-oriented
    • North Africa, Europe, and the East
    • agriculture was develop
    • Architecture
      • burials were used
  • Homo Sapiens 40,000 B.C.
    • sculptures and cave paintings found in caves and shelters
    • Architecture- dwellings
      • animal skins
      • bones
      • very large diameters (some up to 9m)
  • 8.000-4.000 B.C
    • Agriculture firmly established and sedentary style
    • the social organization more complex
    • first Neolithic city up to 10,000 habitants
    • Architecture
      • different types of buildings (public and houses)
      • the city with a defensive wall
      • houses
        • houses separated by courtyards ( there weren’t streets)
        • ground and first floor
        • no front door, ladders were used, due to the danger and fear
        • material: pressed adobe bricks and wood covered with rammed mud on vegetable mats.
  • Protohistory 4000-3,000 B.C.
    • Mesopotamia
    • writing and pottery is developed
    • architecture
      • made with adobe or brick
      • Ziggurat
        • the core of raw, sun-dried adobe brick
        • temples built on top of natural or artificial platforms
        • aim: imitate the dwellings of Gods ( the mountains)
        • the structure resembles the pyramids of Egypt (but more similar to pyramids of Central America)
  • The Egyptians 3,500 B.C
    • place: Nile River
    • survives almost 3,000 years
    • architecture for the god, not humans
      • temples
        • permanence and immutability
        • most important public building
        • the residence of the godor sanctuary
        • purpose: continuity and order
        • large masses and monotonous regularity expressed solidity as a symbol of durability
      • Pyramids
        • eternal constructions
        • change in funerary architecture by the invention of the stepped stone pyramid
        • materials: limestone masonry
  • The Greeks 1,200-146 B.C
    • learned from Egyptian architecture and sculpture
    • Architecture
      • expresses the search for equilibrium between vertical and horizontal loadbearing elements
      • The Polis:
        • the first idea of the city
        • included the city and surrounding farms
        • the Agora: was the center of the Greek community life
        • Stoas: large and elongated buildings to encourage meetings
      • Temples
        • most important building- dedicated to divinity
        • the interior was very simple and not accessible to the public
        • technical perfection, avoiding deformations to achieve harmony
      • Theater and Stadium
        • largest open-air buildings
        • important for the culture
        • excellent acoustics and great capacity
      • HOUSES: similar to the Roman period
        • close to the outside because there were no windows due to the danger that someone could get in- open air inside the building- a central courtyard
        • simple
  • ROMANS- 1,100 B.C
    • Mediterranean basin and Europe (center east)
    • architecture- universal, embodying the essence of the » romanitas»
      • interior closed space
      • discovery of concrete- long-lasting
      • great engineering works (roads, highways, bridges…)
      • CIVIL WORKS
        • specialists in the design of infrastructure
        • Sewage networks (cloaca)
        • aqueducts for water supply to cities
        • roads- army could march quicker than walking in the wildness
        • bridges
        • walls- not very high
        • Commemorative buildings: the triumphal arches
      • PUBLIC BUILDINGS:
        • thermal baths: key building, a meeting point for discussions and agreements (political or commercial)
        • Theatres
          • didn’t use a slope
          • open-air
          • semicircular
        • Circus
          • 1OOO spectators
        • Basilica
          • not religious, the port of justice
        • amphitheatres
          • main innovation
        • naumachia
      • CITIES
        • structure of the military camps
        • forum: the heart of the city, a similar function to the Greek Agora
        • two orthogonal roads (Cardo and Decumanus)
      • Religious building
        • 5 columns (the three greeks and Tuscan and Composite)
        • discover domes to cover buildings solving the technical problems of the greeks
        • The Pantheon of Rome is the religious building that best represents Rome´s achievements.
      • the Domus
        • the habitual dwelling of the richest families
        • they had water, drainage, and heating installations
      • the Insulae
        • dwellings of the plebeians who constituted the most numerous part of the population
        • three or four floors
        • low-quality materials
        • occupied by several families at the same time
  • The Middle Ages
    • The Roman empire disintegrated due to the pressure of the barbarian tribes on the frontiers
    • Churches and other religious buildings became the most important in architecture.
    • a new Christian empire was established in the East
    • pictorial, sculptural, and constructive techniques were lost
  • Byzantine- 6th Century AD
    • preeminently religious with an emphasis on the interior, being the exteriors very discreet
    • imperial places, military installations, public buildings
    • demand to construct hospices, hospital, and orphanages
    • stone is widely used
    • HAGIA SOPHIA
      • Byzantine architecture
      • the union between the empire and the church
      • the biggest dome for centuries
      • Pendetive (pechina)- triangular elements that connect the semicircular dome
      • earthquakes- seismic area- a lot of intervention for the prevention of falling the structure
      • symbolism- all the proportion needs to inspire and narrate through images and sculptures
    • Military Architecture
      • a defensive system and distribution of water
      • innovation: walls higher than before due to the possibility of attack, became a standard of the military architecture
  • Preromanesco
    • the system is transformed by a pyramidal system of vassalage and control of territories
    • the progressive development of degree in the decoration used
    • massive churches and other religious buildings
    • Lombards(6-8th Century)
      • North Italy
      • uniform style
      • great training in goldsmithing
      • learn how to decorate with floral came from the tradition of balsamic
    • Visigoths (7-8th Century)
      • mediterranean sea
      • plain walls of stone
      • no windows
      • model of the traditional Roman basilica (like the columns)
    • Carolingian (9th Century)
      • religion fundamental for the construction of monasteries
      • decoration more complex
      • Wesrwek- tower that characterized as a church- defense (not used. but more symbolic)
    • Saxons (9-10th Century)
      • Carolingian stylistic
      • abbeys and cathedrals
      • galleries or tribunes
      • feudal anarchy
      • more mature romanesc architecture
      • massive building, and the light
  • Islamic: 8-15th Century
    • different from Christian
    • use of towers- defending
    • absence of human beings (big tabu in Islamic religion)
    • decoration geometrical, floral, and letters as decorating
    • presence of water
    • materials: ceramic, using plaster molds
    • Mosques- places for prayers and gatherings
    • baths (Hamam)
  • romanesque: 10-12th Century
    • presence domes and vaults
    • light buildings
    • a common feature all Europe and mediterranean sea
    • use of bricks
  • Gothic S.XII-XV
    • where the classical feature was not so well spread- Ex: England, north of France
    • features: arches
      • diagonal ribs
      • ovigal arch
      • main feature: use of ribs with stronger material while the panels were built with light and less resistant materials- tecnological advance
    • CATHEDRALS
      • less tall but wider- symbolism to «reach God»
      • the materialization of architecture: walls can be built with glass windows due to the ogival arch
      • improvements: pointed arches and ribbed vaults
      • external shoring system for the arches of the central naves
      • system of stabilization of the structure
      • decoration: frescoes directly on the stone
      • history evolution in the french cathedral
    • CIVIL BUILDINGS
      • commercial markets and buildings for professional guilds
        • Lonja de la Seda – Valencia
      • center of local power
      • light and open structures
      • city councils are built
  • Renaissance 15 and 16 th Century
    • urban culture: traders, commerce, people- money, power, and knowledge
    • humanism: was a philosophy that emphasized the importance of human values and achievements distinguishing them from religious dogma
    • recovery of Romanity, intellectual and artistic achievements of classical antiquity
    • books of Vitruvius
    • proportions in architecture
    • FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI
      • 1377-1446
      • Architect, humanist, sculptor mathematician.
      • «Architecture is a mathematical science that operates with spacial units»
      • known for the dome of the cathedral of Florence
    • LEÓN BATTISTA ALBERTI
      • 1404-1472
      • architect in theory and practice
      • Its buildings are full of demonstrative intentions and subtle formal resources oriented to proportion
      • He composes several treatises like De Pictura
      • ‘ Beauty is the harmony between all the parts of the whole according to a certain norm so that it is not possible to remove, put, or change anything without the whole becoming imperfect’
    • ANDREA PALLIDO
      • 1508-1580
      • writes » I Quattro Libri Architettura»
      • more than 40 villas built for the Venetian nobility
      • based on his music studies, he used a numerical system of proportionality
      • He also built two churches in Venice- Basilica of San Giorgio and the Rendentore
    • MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI
      • 1475-1564
      • greatest artist: sculptor, painter, and architect
      • illustrates the transition between the Reinassance and Mannerism
      • Laurenziana library
        • combination of curves and right angles – a sense of movement and tension
        • staircase protagonist
      • redevelopment of the Capitoline hill- adds value to the old area
      • new sensualism called Mannerism, opening the way to space and the baroque style
  • Baroque
    • 17th-18th Century
    • emerged as propaganda and glorification of power in the reaffirmation of the counter-reform church
    • architecture
      • maximum possible effects from the molded space, the manipulation of light, color, and sensual detail
    • is the spatial liberation of the rules of the treatises, of conventions, of elementary geometry
    • focus on the visual effect and decor
    • GIAN LORENZO BERNINI
      • Italian architect, sculptor, and painter
      • in architecture pursues the emotional impact and merges into painting and sculpture to recreate art
      • work: Apolo and Dafne (sculpture), Fontana Dei Quattro Fiumi (architecture)
    • FRANCESCO BORROMINI
      • original and revolutionary architect
      • simple geometric elements
      • work: façade of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane, San Ivo alla Sapienza, Palazzo Spada
    • ROCOCO
      • artistic fashion born in the French courtly environment
      • frivolity and superficiality of a decoration
      • this will raise the unease of the other social classes which lead to the French Revolution
  • Neoclassic
    • 18-19th
    • Enlightenment and the explosion and human inquiry
    • change towards a rational architecture, dominion of the truth over the visual effect
    • new information about classical construction- new mindset- French Revolution
    • moral and ethical underline
    • Louis Boullé and Claude Nicolas Ledoux were the representatives of the new ‘talking architecture’
    • around Europe and the USA
  • 19th Century
    • industrial revolution
      • new materials- iron and concrete- that changed the resistance
    • language of architecture rediscovered
    • learn of east countries like japan- new languages
  • 20 th Century
    • Art-Nouveau- Modernism
      • change in mentality (because of war)
      • industrialization – big city overcrowded- the environment of the city wasn´t healthy
      • middle class-
      • decoration, furniture was handmade built by professionals
    • New avantgarde- Expressionism, Cubism; Futurism
      • 1900-1914
      • diffusion of photography
      • Gaudí’s Casa Milá, Mendelsohn- most representative in expressionism
      • Gropius, Le Corbusier- cubism
      • futurism- movement- Niemeyer, Sant’ Elia
    • Avantgarde: Surrealism, abstracts
      • 1913-1932
      • constructivism: architectural expression of abstractism. Simple architecture and the use of pure lines.
      • Neoplasticism: orthogonal composition extended to infinity
      • Rationalism: Bauhaus (Berlin) aimed functionality, industrialization, seriality, and economy
    • Post-war period
      • 1950-…
      • The 50s and 60s: function adapted to the needs of the human being within its cultural tradition and its place
      • since the 1960s: the personal individuality of the architect, the environmental sensitivities related to sustainability begins to have more expression